WORLD energy consuption is increasing day by day. the world energy production which has 269 exajoules in 1972 increases to 690 exajoules in the year 2000 and is likely to go above 1000exajoules at the end of year 2020. despite of this enormous increses in production, toatl energy requirment of world is not fulfilled. with the ever increasing population and advenmt of new technologies the wolrld energy requirment is likely to be continuosly increasing. this scraity of energy making it more and costilier.
the short term measure to handle this scrity is conservation and management. the long term measurees extension of fossil fuel usages and exloration of new reserves. on the other hand, renewable resourses have to be developed sufficently , so that they can take up a siginificant supplementry role in energy sceneand eventually replacing non renewable resourses.
COAL: in 1925 83% of the world energy suply depended on coal . in1950 it reduced to 33% with the hikes in prices of oil in 1973 and 1979 coal re emerged as world's chepest fuel.
it has been estimated that about 6000BILLION TONNES of coal lioes under the earth out of which 200 BILLION TONNES haas ben used and remaining coal will be suffice for the next 200 years.
OIL AND GAS: oil is one of the major source of energy in use now a days. almost 40% of the energy need of the world are completed by oil. but it is very unevenly distributed over the earth . U.S.A mexico U.S.S.R. and the west asian region iran iraq saudi arabia kuwait U.A.E. qatar and bahrain are the major oil producing countries of the world rest of the world depends upon these countries for thier needs. as a result of which oil proces are increasing at a very rapid rate. oilprice which was 3$per barral in 1973 is pver 140$ per barral today and likely to increase more. further with resent stock of 250000 million tonnes of oil it would be suffice only for 100 years so an alternative have to be found out.
the second major source of enrgy is expected to be natural gas with resent gas reserves of 6000 to 10000 trillion cubic feet it will be suffice only for the next 50 years.
NUCLEAR POWER: Contribution of nuclear power in worlds total energy roduction which was only 2 exajoules in 1972 is likely to become 314 exajoules by the end of 2020. Nuclear power can be the solution to the world’s energy supply problem, as complete fission of 1 kg of u235 gives energy which can be obtained by burning 4500 tonnes of coal or 2200 tonnes of oil.
High capital cost, limited availlabilty of raw material mand danger of radioactive pollution hinders the growth of nuclear energy.
RENEWABLE RESOURCES: With limited availability and high cost of conventional energy sources, world is now looking for renewable energy sources for its energy needs. Major renewable energy sources are solar energy,hydro energy,wave power,wind power and biomass energy. of these hydro electric ower is the best devloped, providing 5% of the world’s energy supply in the form of very cheap electricity.
Solar energy is also a better option as if we can tap only 5% of the total solar energy reaching on earth, it can fulfil our energy requirment 50 times.
The major problem with the use of renewable sources is their diffuse of dilute nature. For example. To reduced a 1 mile square of nuclear ower station, 25 miles square of a solar power station will be required.